Accueil > Manifestations scientifiques > Séminaires/Journées d'étude

Séminaire Octogone : "Normal and pathological cognitive aging"

le 12 décembre 2013
14h30-18h



Programme:


14h30
Factors of psychosocial adaptation among elderly residents in long term care: A multidimensional perspective. Valérie Igier (Octogone-CERPP)
 
15h15
Switching between naming and spelling : a comparison of younger and older monolinguals with preliminary ERP data. Emilie Massa (Octogone-Lordat & CLLE-LTC), Radouane El Yagoubi (CLLE-LTC) & Barbara Köpke (Octogone-Lordat)
 
16h
ALIBI — Alzheimer, Immigration and Bilingualism: L2 regression in bilingual migrants with Alzheimer's disease. Melissa Barkat-Defradas (Praxiling UMR 5267 CNRS et Université Montpellier 3) & Frédérique Gayraud (DDL UMR 5596, Université Lyon 2)

16h45
Language and Dementia: Reading Compromised and Preserved Cognition Into and Out of Conversational Data. Robert W. Schrauf (Department of Applied Linguistics, Pennsylvania State University)



Abstracts:
 
Valérie Igier : Factors of psychosocial adaptation among elderly residents in long term care: A multidimensional perspective
 
The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between demographic, cognitive and psychological factors. It was relevant to investigate the predictors of adaptation in institutional setting. Fifty people living in nursing home  settings were assessed. The dependant variable was adaptation, measured with the adaptation of the elderly person to his residence (EAPAR; Castonguay & Ferron, 1999). Eight independent variables were tested through a multiple linear regression analysis: cognitive function, apathy, demotivation, functional autonomy, self-esteem, social support, anxiety and depression. The final model included depression, self-esteem, apathy and social support and explained 52% of the total variance in adaptation. A cluster analysis was employed to derive clusters of adaptation profiles. We identified three profiles that differed according to the levels of depression, self-esteem, apathy, social support and the ability to move. The findings demonstrate the importance of psychological and social interventions to improve the adaptation of residents with low social support or low ability to move.


Emilie Massa, Radouane El Yagoubi & Barbara Köpke : Switching between naming and spelling : a comparison of younger and older monolinguals with preliminary ERP data

Executive control deficits are frequently observed during normal cognitive aging (Isingrini, 2004) but vary a lot among individuals. This has been explained with the cognitive reserve (CR) hypothesis assuming that CR favors mental compensation in case of brain damage through increased use of brain networks. Various intellectual, physical and social experiences across the lifespan have been shown to affect CR (Stern, 2009). It has also been supposed that bilingualism contributes to CR (Bialystok, 2004; 2005; 2008) because continuous competition between languages puts high demands on executive control.
While the aim of our study is to investigate the mediating role of bilingualism on age-related executive control impairment, this presentation will focus on younger and older monolingual speakers performing a verbal switch task. Since bilingual language switching is commonly tested in overt picture naming tasks (OPNT), we asked francophone monolinguals to switch between different task conditions involving either naming the picture or giving the first letter of it’s name. Preliminary behavioral and ERP data will be presented comparing the performance of younger (mean age 24) and older (mean age 72) monolingual participants on this task and on executive control tasks.



Melissa Barkat-Defradas & Frédérique Gayraud : ALIBI-Alzheimer, Immigration and Bilingualism: L2 regression in bilingual migrants with Alzheimer's disease.

A recent estimate reported 765,000 immigrants over 65 years old in France. As the proportion of this bilingual population grows, there is an increasing need for neuropsychological measures that are appropriate for assessing these populations characterized by a low educational background and late bilingualism. Procedures commonly used for assessing cognitive function in people with suspected dementia are of questionable validity in second language settings because of possible linguistic and cultural inappropriateness. Indeed, an increasing number of studies have shown that bilingual dementia patients tend to asymmetrical language impairment with preferential preservation and use of the first acquired language. This is in line with the retrogenesis hypothesis according to which recently learned information is retained the least and older, more remote information, is often relatively preserved. In this study, 5 Italian-French and 3 Arabic-French were tested in both  L1 (Italian or Arabic) and L2 (French) using adapted versions of the MMSE (Folstein & Folstein, 1975), and sub–tests of the Screening BAT (Guilhem et al., 2013): linguistic history, syntactic comprehension, verbal fluency and a naming task. The participants also performed a culturally controlled naming task (Lee, Gayraud, Gambette & Barkat-Defradas, 2013), and a narrative task from the BAT (Paradis, 1987). One goal of the study was to evaluate the relevance of the use of the BAT (originally designed for aphasic patients) for this population. Preliminary results indicate better performances in the patient’s L1 and demonstrate the potential contribution of information from language-based tasks administered in the patient's preferred language to screening for dementia in second language settings. However we found floor or ceiling effects on some subtests of the BAT, suggesting that they are not appropriate to test these populations.



Robert W. Schrauf : Language and Dementia: Reading Compromised and Preserved Cognition Into and Out of Conversational Data.

In this talk, I address the mutual enrichments of pragmatics and cognitive gerontology/cognitive neuropsychology in understanding the language of persons with dementia.  On the one hand, moving from cognition to conversation, I consider the question: how might we interpret the conversational data of persons with Alzheimer’s in light of the signature cognitive deficits of the disease—severely diminished working memory, impaired executive function, problematic lexical retrieval and degenerating semantic organization?    On the other hand, moving from conversation to cognition, I ask: what cognitive competencies are presupposed by the real-time, naturally-occurring, communicative performances of persons with Alzheimer’s disease?  Different pragmatic theories (e.g. relevance theory, emergent pragmatics, interpersonal pragmatics, etc.) lend themselves to either side of this equation, and these reflections serve to formulate new questions for both pragmatic and cognitive approaches to communication in dementia.

Lieu(x) :
Salle d'Etudes, Bibliothèque Universitaire Centrale, UTM

 

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